Abstract: Shallow geothermal energy systems deployment will play an important part in decarbonisation of heating and cooling of buildings. This trend will stimulate research into ground physical, thermal and hydraulic properties and impacts on urban aquifers and infrastructures. Moreover, subsurface heat extraction must be perceived as reliable, sustainable and equitable to create an environment for social acceptance and uptake of geothermal technologies. The EU H2020-funded GeoERA ‘MUSE’ project (2018-2021), involved 16 Geological Surveys, who shared methods and developed harmonised workflows for the evaluation of shallow geothermal resources in European urban areas (Götzl et al., EGC 2022). The project deployed and tested ground characterisation and geophysical monitoring techniques, monitored GSHP schemes, analysed the local market situation, produced fact sheets, made policy recommendations, and developed adaptive management strategies. The research included in-field monitoring studies in 14 urban pilot areas across Europe, including three UK urban pilot areas; Cardiff in south Wales, Glasgow in west Scotland and Colchester in east England. This paper summarises the result with a focus on the Cardiff area.