The application of phase change materials (PCMs) has been verified as an effective strategy for improving energy efficiency and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Biocomposite PCMs (Bc-PCM) exhibit large latent heat, chemical stability, and a wide temperature range. In this study, thermal conductivity improved Bc-PCM (TBc-PCM) was made via vacuum impregnation with graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs). Chemical stability analysis and thermal performance analyses of the Bc-PCM and TBc-PCM were carried out as well as building energy simulations and thermal comfort analyses. Our results show Bc-PCM showed a higher heat storage capacity and enthalpy value compared to TBc-PCM. TBc-PCM exhibited a 378% increase in thermal conductivity compared to Bc-PCM. Building energy simulation results revealed that annual heating and cooling energy consumption decreased as the thickness of the PCM layer increased. In addition, the Bc-PCM with a larger PCM capacity was more effective in reducing energy consumption during the heating period. On the other hand, the cooling energy reduction effect was greater when TBc-PCM with high thermal conductivity was applied because of the high heat transfer during the cooling period. Thermal comfort evaluation revealed it was more comfortable when PCM was applied.